At the beginning of the sixteenth century the Ottoman, Safavid and Spanish Habsburg empires were all expanding. Two hundred years later, the Safavid dynasty was gone and Madrid and Constantinople had lost the initiative to other powers.
De Chardin viewed Safavid culture through the lens of his own experiences. While he offers key insights into seventeenth century Iranian life, we must be careful not to take his assessments at face value.
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His criticisms of his Iranian hosts often came from differences in cultural orientation. As a French Protestant from an urban background, de Chardin embodied the ideas and ideals or the rising middle class of northern Europe. Literate, commercially-oriented, and increasingly impatient with customs that did not suit their interests, representatives of the bourgeoisie would play an increasingly prominent role in world history in the years to come. Improve Your Grade Work with these documents and activities to master chapter learning objectives.
When, where, and how were religion and politics most closely intertwined in the societies discussed in this chapter?
When and why did religion come to play a less prominent political role? How did the balance of power between the dominant states of Western Eurasia shift during this period?
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This page lists a few basic French greetings, along with their pronunciations. Although many French speakers will know the English equivalents of these basic words and phrases, they will still appreciate the effort if you take the trouble to learn simple words such as these basic salutations. The French greetings below are organised into various lists. To hear the pronunciation of the French greetings in each list, click or tap the 'speaker' icon.
Firstly, even if you "don't speak French", you may well have heard some of the following already. The situation is a little more complex than this: for more information, see the section on when to use tu and vous.
A question that sometimes arises among learners is "how do you say 'Pleased to meet you' in French? The following are also possible:. As in English, there are various ways to say goodbye in French.
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